托福写作必备核心词汇表述汇总 ,这些功能词要会用。今天小编给大家带来了托福写作必备核心词汇表述汇总 ，希望可以帮助到大家，下面小编就和大家分享，来欣赏一下吧。
The author: discuss introduce argue conclude suggest recommend propose appeal
1.point out say tell
2.disagree disapprove refute rebut reject object to oppose counter
3.doubt question challenge
4.cite mention quote refer to
5.suggest put forward illustrate show explain
1.This directly contradicts what the passage indicates.
2.This is entirely oppose to the writer’s expectation.
3.This is where the speaker disagrees with the writer.
4.This was another part where experience contradicted theory.
5.not as the passage puts it, ….
1.reason cause basis ground motive motivation
3.evidence date fact proof basis foundation
5.definition description clarification
3.alternative explanation theory
What are some important qualities of a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and examples to explain why these qualities are important.
The qualities of a good supervisor are too numerous to name. It also depends on the situation. Supervisors who work in an academic situation may have different qualities from those who work in a business company. Generally speaking, however, all good supervisors must have the qualities of effective communication, fair treatment, and role models.
First, a good supervisor communicates well. A supervisor gives instructions and directions to his or her supervisees as to what work to do and how to do it. Then instructions and directions must be clearly communicated so that they can be followed. If they are not clearly formulated and explained, the supervisees may feel at a loss at why they have to do something and how to do it. (I know of somebody who gets angry easily when his employees fail to follow his instructions. However, he often gives vague instructions and is unwilling to clarify his requirements, which makes it difficult for his supervisees to follow his instructions.) Thus, a good supervisor is effective in communicating his or her instructions and is willing to clarify things for his or her supervisees.
Second, a good supervisor shows fair treatment of employees. The supervisor treats all his or her employees with equal respect and shows no favoritism. Otherwise, some employees may have a sense of unfairness and demonstrate performance less than ideal. Even though the supervisor may have or develop some personal feelings about or personal relationship with an employee, he or she does not let such feelings or relationship affect his or her judgment and treatment of the person. Instead, the supervisor evaluates each employee’s performance against the same set of criteria and rewards or punishes each employee on the basis of objective assessment.
Finally, a good supervisor sets an example for employees. In other words, a good supervisor sets the standards for his or her employees by his or her own behavior. Well goes an English proverb, “Example is better than percept.” A good supervisor must do what he or she requires the subordinates to do. For example, if the supervisor works hard, it is likely that his or her employees will work diligently as well. Likewise, if the supervisor always gets work done on time, the employees must feel pressured to finish work on time, too. Therefore, a good supervisor acts professionally if he or she expects the supervisees to act in a professional way.
In short, the main qualities of a good supervisor are effective communication, fair treatment, and role models. Most supervisors have effective communication skills but sometimes forget fair treatment of employees or fail to set an example for them. Good supervisors should check themselves, every once in a while, to make sure that they are practicing these qualities.
Many students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home counties. Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.
Studying in one’s home country offers unique benefits. For example, the home country provides best education in some subjects that other countries do not offer. However, it is important to study overseas for at least part of one’s higher education. By studying abroad, students can acquire a new language, get to know another culture, and pursue good programs.
The most obvious advantage of studying overseas is learning a new language. It is important to be bilingual or even multilingual nowadays. For example, international communication is essential for our global economy. For many students who choose to study in English-speaking countries, they can easily pick up English if they are actively engaged in speaking English. Even for those who have had a good grasp of English in reading and writing, they can still improve their spoken English after exposure to an English-speaking environment.
As important as learning a new language is becoming acquainted with a new culture. Cultures differ from one another and they are even diametrically opposite on some points. By studying overseas, students become familiar with other ways of life and learn to respect them. For example, to students from some cultures, privacy is a relatively new concept. The students may choose to tell their course grades to their classmates in the foreign country and ask them for similar information. In turn, they may feel disappointed or even shocked to receive no answer and be told that this is privacy. After a while, however, they have a better understanding of the concept of pervasive privacy in the foreign country.
Last but not least, we are able to undertake excellent programs in the foreign country where we choose to study. Some programs may not be available in the students’ home country. For example, a student who is interested in American literature may find that no university in his or her country offers this program. Other programs are available in the students’ home country but not on a par with similar programs in a foreign country. This can be illustrated by MBA programs of American universities. A number of counties offer MBA programs, but many think that American universities offer the best MBA programs. This accounts for the fact that the majority of MBA holders have obtained the degree from American universities.
Studying abroad can be rewarding. Not only can students acquire a new language and know more about a different culture, but they can pursue excellent programs as well. Indeed, studying in a foreign country is a worthwhile experience.
1.Somestudents prefer to have their final grades determined by numerous small assignments, whereas others prefer to have their grades determined by only afew large ones. Which do you prefer and why?
2.An effective leader tries to make others feel they are parts of a decision.
3.If a city has an amount of money, which option listed in the following do you prefer?
Build a public garden to provide quiet environment to benefit all
Build a sports field for students in high school which doesn’t have its own.
4.Governmenthas done enough to educate people the importance of a balanced lifestyle and healthy eating.
5.In the past,people were more interested in improving their neighborhoods than they are today.
6.In the past,young people depended on their parents for making decisions. Today young people are better able to make decisions on their own.
7.It is better to relax by watching TV or reading a book than by doing physical exercises.
8.We should state our honest opinions even though people may disagree with us.
9.In order to succeed in a new job, the ability to adapt oneself to the new environment ismore important than excellent knowledge.
10.People spend too much time communication through social media and text messages.
11.There is noreason to be rude to another person.
12.Technology designed to make people’s life simpler in fact make peoples life morecomplicated.
13.Movies andTV programs made in your own country are more interesting compared to moviesand programs made in other countries.
14.It is as important for older people to study and lean new things as it is for youngpeople.
15.To remain happy and optimistic whenever you fail is more important than to achieve success.
16.It is important to know what is happening around the world, even if it does not affect your personal life.
针对独立写作的常见话题，大致可归成三类：个人类(关于学习、工作、休闲、做人的选择);古今类(题目中有明显的now… past … 让考生判断现在和过去在某一方面的比较);决策类(题目中通常有government这个词出现，讨论政府的投资或者政策，有些题目虽然没有government这个词出现，但如果涉及的是有社会影响力的话题，也可以划为政府类，比如 A/D Professional athletes such as the football playerand basketball player deserve high salaries that they are paid.)
交朋友、陪伴家人……. (合作、沟通) …….
品质(自信，独立，坚持，乐观 ) / 兴趣爱好
题目中谈论到的比如artists,scientists, athletes 等等
4. 社会 Society
Economy(tourism), culture, safety, improvement …
这里说一下三个检验标准：1.支持观点 2. 论点相互不重叠 3. 易于展开
1.Some students prefer to havetheir final grades determined by numerous small assignments, whereas othersprefer to have their grades determined by only a few large ones. Which do youprefer and why?
2.An effectiveleader tries to make others feel they are parts of a decision.
3.If a city has an amount ofmoney, which option listed in the following do you prefer?
1)Build a publicgarden to provide quiet environment to benefit all
2)Build asports field for students in high school which doesn’t have its own.
4.Governmenthas done enough to educate people the importance of a balanced lifestyle andhealthy eating.
论点1： knowledge 宣传健康饮食的知识( 课程广告 )
论点2： pressure 减少学习和工作压力
论点3： money 建设更多更便宜的运动场所减轻人们的经济负担
5.In the past,people were more interested in improving their neighborhoods than they aretoday.
6.In the past, young people depended ontheir parents for making decisions. Today young people are better able to makedecisions on their own.
论点2：Education – 培养独立
7.It is betterto relax by watching TV or reading a book than by doing physical exercises.
8.We shouldstate our honest opinions even though people may disagree with us.
9.In order tosucceed in a new job, the ability to adapt oneself to the new environment ismore important than excellent knowledge.
论点1：get alongwith different people
10.Peoplespend too much time communication through social media and text messages.
11.There is noreason to be rude to another person.
版本1：Agree 常用理由 -mood - efficiency - opportunity
版本2：Agree 拆分法- 家庭礼貌- 工作礼貌 - 社交礼貌
12.Technologydesigned to make people’s life simpler in fact make peoples life morecomplicated.
1) car –traffic jam; air pollution
2) internet – too much information to handle; false and misleading
3) digital devices – distraction (music; games; chat; online shopping)
13.Movies andTV programs made in your own country are more interesting compared to movies andprograms made in other countries.
Own country:1 共鸣理解2 喜欢的演员
14.It is asimportant for older people to study and lean new things as it is for youngpeople.
3communication with young people
15.To remainhappy and optimistic whenever you fail is more important than to achievesuccess.
16.It is importantto know what is happening around the world, even if it does not affect yourpersonal life.
1)medicalnews – health
2)political news – safety
3)economic news – money